DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

        Gudmestad, Julie. “The Hyperextended Knee.” Yoga Journal . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <www.yogajournal.com...‌practice/‌997>.

         Hyperextension that is developed and not caused by genetic factors, is initiated by joints becoming too flexible. If tissues in joints, ligaments or tendons become too lose, the joint may move in ways that are harmful to the knee. The knee is the part of the body most vulnerable to this over-flexibility. This is because the two long bongs of the knee are primarily held together by ligaments and tendons. Misalignment of the knee as well as bad movement habits caused by hyperextension can often lead to arthritis or other serious injuries. One way in which to assess whether the knees are hyperextended is to stand in a mirror and observe whether there is a straight line from hip to ankle. If the knee appears to bend backwards and does not remain in line with the hips and ankles, the knees are most likely hyperextended. The ligaments that are at the highest risk are the cruciate ligaments, those located in the deepest region of the knee, the medial and lateral collateral ligaments located on the inner and outer surfaces of the knee and lastly, the popliteal ligaments, which cross the back of the knee. Instead of engaging the quadricep muscles, those with hyperextended knees often compensate for the lack of stability by pushing the knee joints backwards.  This puts an abundant amount of stress on the knees, further aggravating ligaments and can even lead to serious injuries.

            I found this source to be very helpful. Though this source provided quite a bit of information that I am already aware of, I thought it explained hyperextension very thoroughly and in a clear way. I also learned the ligaments within the knee that are most affected by hyperextension of the knees.

          “A Massage Therapist’s Guide for a Hyperextended Knee .” Vybes.com. N.p., 11 Nov. 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2009. <www.ethioplanet.com‌vybes/‌2009/‌11/‌11/‌a-massage-therapist%E2%80%99s-guide-for-a-hyperextended-knee/>.

            Over time, hyperextension that is not handled correctly can lead to strain or tear ligaments, degenerate local cartilage, cause arthritis of the knee joint or knee cap or fracture the tibia. Experts have agreed that the best way to stabilize the knee, especially a hyperextended knee, is to make sure the knee-extending strength of the quadriceps is balanced with the knee-flexing strength of the hamstring and other knee-flexing muscles. In a knee that is not hyperextended, the ligaments and tendons stop the femur and tibia at the point where they are directly in line with one another. Tissues at risk include cruciate ligaments, medial and lateral collateral ligaments, popliteal ligaments, hamstring tendons coming down from the back of the thigh, and the gastrocnemius tendons coming up from the calf. The ACL helps to prevent the tibia from moving too far forward in relation to the femur and is particularly susceptible to injury. Hyperextension of the knee can lead to heavy stress on the lower legs which can result in shin splints. Fracturing the tibia is another possible result of incorrectly using hyperextended knees. In more severe cases of hyperextension, posture can be disturbed from head to toe. In several ballet and yoga poses, participants are encouraged to “lock”. Bodyworkers can help cope with hyperextension by massaging the soleus, quadriceps and other nearby tightened muscles.

         I believe that this source was semi-helpful. A Massage Therapist must have knowledge of how hyperextension puts and excessive amount of stress on not only the knee, but the whole leg, and therefore knows the most effective ways and places to massage the leg. Also, I was unaware that hyperextension of the knee could result in bad posture. I also learned a few more tissues that are at risk because of hyperextension.

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.